In the year of the dissolution of the art group Brücke, Heckel created this impressive landscape of the Flensburg Fjord. In sweeping strokes, he captured the lush green of the fields, bushes and trees under a turbulent sky. The painting proves his desire to convey moods and feelings through forms and motifs. The angular shapes and systematic brushwork herald another development in Heckel’s oeuvre: they are reminiscent of crystalline structures that the artist later used to exaggerate reality.
Pauline Kowarzik (née Fellner; 1852–1930) grew up in Frankfurt and received private painting and drawing lessons at a young age. In 1896, she married the Viennese sculptor and medallist Josef Kowarzik (1860–1911), who taught sculpture at the Städelschule. Together, they were very active participants of Frankfurt’s art life and closely associated with the Städel Art Institute. Due to her notable knowledge of modern art, Pauline Kowarzik was the first woman to be appointed as a member with advisory capacity in the acquisition committee of the Städtische Galerie in 1916. Kowarzik herself owned a significant collection with modern art works. When the inflation in 1926 got her into financial trouble, Pauline Kowarzik sold her private collection to the Städel for a monthly life annuity. In 1937, 18 of the 34 works were removed from the museum as part of the “Degenerate Art” confiscation operation. Nowadays, they are either lost or in other museums all over Europe. Heckel’s "Landscape in Holstein" was the only one of these works that the Städel was able to buy back.
Since 2001, the Städel Museum has systematically been researching the provenance of all objects that were acquired during the National Socialist period, or that changed owners or could have changed owners during those years. The basis for this research is the “Washington Declaration”, also known as the “Washington Conference Principles”, formulated at the 1998 “Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets” and the subsequent “Joint Declaration”.
The provenance information is based on the sources researched at the time they were published digitally. However, this information can change at any time when new sources are discovered. Provenance research is therefore a continuous process and one that is updated at regular intervals.
Ideally, the provenance information documents an object’s origins from the time it was created until the date when it found its way into the collection. It contains the following details, provided they are known:
The successive ownership records are separated from each other by a semicolon.
Gaps in the record of a provenance are indicated by the placeholder “…”. Unsupported information is listed in square brackets.
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