Dark clouds push their way in front of the sun; the wind blows in fits and starts. Peasants seek refuge in their huts. The sense of restlessness has also infected the brook pouring over the rocks in a small foaming waterfall at the lower edge of the scene. Even the chapped tree trunks seem to quake with apprehension. The rising storm is almost palpable. Every one of Jacob van Ruisdael’s brushstrokes is instilled with the change in the weather. It is not least of all for that quality that he is considered the most innovative landscape painter of the Dutch ‘Golden Age’.
Since 2001, the Städel Museum has systematically been researching the provenance of all objects that were acquired during the National Socialist period, or that changed owners or could have changed owners during those years. The basis for this research is the “Washington Declaration”, also known as the “Washington Conference Principles”, formulated at the 1998 “Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets” and the subsequent “Joint Declaration”.
The provenance information is based on the sources researched at the time they were published digitally. However, this information can change at any time when new sources are discovered. Provenance research is therefore a continuous process and one that is updated at regular intervals.
Ideally, the provenance information documents an object’s origins from the time it was created until the date when it found its way into the collection. It contains the following details, provided they are known:
The successive ownership records are separated from each other by a semicolon.
Gaps in the record of a provenance are indicated by the placeholder “…”. Unsupported information is listed in square brackets.
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