1898 attends the sculpture class at the Städel School, Frankfurt am Main. Instruction in painting under Ottilie W. Roederstein. 1900 visits Paris. 1901-1903 art school in Weimar together with Max Beckmann. Later lives in Frankfurt am Main. 1905 exhibition in Frankfurt's Kunstverein. Friendship with Beckmann. 1944-1945 moves to Bad Nauheim.