1895 moves to Basel. School of Applied Arts, Basel. 1908 Art Academy, Karlsruhe, recommended by Hans Thoma. 1909-1911 study in Florence at the Accademia internazionale. 1912-1920 lives in Frankfurt am Main. From 1916, regular summer vacations in Switzerland. 1919 founding member of the 'Darmstadt Secession'. 1920-1933 professor at the State Art School, Karlsruhe. 1928 exhibition at the Frankfurt Kunstverein.