Abstraction-Création was an artists’ association which was founded in Paris in 1931 and existed until 1936. Various international artists joined forces with the aim of promoting non-representational art via exhibitions and the annual publication of an eponymous magazine. The association incorporated a number of different artistic positions which it is almost impossible to reduce to a common denominator. At times the extended circle of Abstraction-Création included over 400 artists, and its members changed frequently. They did not aim at a collective style but believed in the maintenance of their own individual convictions and forms of expression. However, most of the group members supported positions relating to Geometric Abstraction, which they understood not only as a counter-movement to the tendencies towards Neo-Realism and Neo-Classicism which were just emerging, but also to Surrealism. Nonetheless, individual works frequently revealed echoes of Surrealism and a mutual penetration of styles. The inner circle of artists included Hans Arp, Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Naum Gabo, Otto Freundlich, Piet Mondrian, Willi Baumeister, Theo van Doesburg and Alexander Calder, amongst others. In the Constructivist tradition, the artists also investigated theoretical considerations and explored physical-optical visual effects. For example, three-dimensional colour vision or the flickering effect were both demonstrated by means of geometric colour compositions and painterly colour studies.