The Martyrdom, Max Beckmann
Max Beckmann
The Martyrdom
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Max Beckmann

The Martyrdom, 1919

Sheet 3 of the series 'Hell'


Blatt
620 x 863 mm
Darstellung
545 x 750 mm
Physical Description
Chalk lithograph (transfer) on Japan paper
Inventory Number
SG 3067
Object Number
SG 3067 D
Acquisition
Acquired in 1949 from the collection of Ugi and Fridel Battenberg
Status
Can be presented in the study room of the Graphische Sammlung (special opening hours)

Texts

About the Work

It was by way of drawing, etching and lithography that Beckmann developed his distinctive formal language during his early years in Frankfurt. Angular, reductive forms now came to define the pictorial structure. The artist broke up the space in virtually cubist manner, introducing perspectival warps and distorted dimensions that created a quality of dynamic instability. Within about fifteen years, Beckmann produced a rich printmaking oeuvre of exceptional intensity. A key work by the artist in that medium is the lithographic series ‘Hell’.

‘Hell’ mirrors Beckmann’s experience of the world after World War I in ten compositions and one title page. Caught firmly in the grip of inflation and economic hardship, Germany was a tinderbox until the proclamation of the Weimar Republic in November 1919. Civil-war-like conditions prevailed in many places, including Frankfurt – but also Berlin, a city Beckmann visited in March 1919. It was this state of affairs that provided the impulse for ‘Hell’.

In these images Beckmann portrays a deeply traumatized society – unsparingly, but without moral indictment. He depicts the human being as brutalized and mutilated, obsessed with merrymaking and murder, disillusioned, hungry and devoid of hope. “For the world is Hell”, the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer – whose works Beckmann devoured – had concluded in 1851, “and men are on the one hand the tormented souls and on the other the devils in it.” (Arthur Schopenhauer, On the Suffering of the World, London 2004, p. 15.) The Hell Beckmann portrays is like Schopenhauer’s in that there is no escaping it. His cycle depicts human drama as “scene[s] in the theatre of the eternal” (Max Beckmann, diary entry of 12 September 1940, ibid., Tagebücher, 1940–1950, Munich 1979, p. 310).

Especially during his Frankfurt years, the motifs of the stage, funfair and circus served Beckmann as metaphors for the world. ‘Hell’, for example, begins with a self-portrait of the artist as a fairground crier touting a “grand spectacle”. Only then do the individual images follow: claustrophobically interleaving spaces and oppressively close-up scenes viewed from abruptly shifting perspectives. Elements of reality are inextricably intertwined with the visionary and symbolic.

Beckmann executed the ‘Hell’ compositions in chalk on paper in a format clearly characterizing them as major artworks. They were then transferred to lithographic stones by way of a special process and printed by the C. Naumann company in Frankfurt. The gallerist Jsrael Ber Neumann, with whom Beckmann had been acquainted since 1912, acted as publisher. He had just opened his “Graphisches Kabinett” in Berlin the previous year, at the age of twenty-two. This establishment soon advanced to become one of the most influential galleries for German Expressionism. When Beckmann showed him the chalk drawings for ‘Hell’ in June 1919, Neumann spontaneously purchased the series. “Never”, the gallerist later recalled, “had I seen art of such venom, such bitterness.” (Jsrael Ber Neumann, “Sorrow and Champagne”, quoted from the original typescript in the Museum of Modern Art, New York, J. B. Neumann Papers, II.B.1.b, p. 8.

The Martyrdom: On the pavement in front of the entrance to a hotel, soldiers with rifles have beat a woman senseless. With surprising fidelity to detail, the artist has reproduced certain elements of the contemporary reports on the murder of Rosa Luxemburg in January 1919. Yet rather than depicting the influential socialist in portrait-like manner, he characterizes her as a martyr, her battered body stretched out in the shape of a cross. And he makes sure to point out that not only the military was responsible for the murderous deed.

Video

  • Städels Beckmann / Beckmanns Städel. Die Jahre in Frankfurt
    Max Beckmann (1884–1950) ist wie kaum ein anderer Künstler mit dem Städel Museum und Frankfurt verbunden. Er verbrachte die längste und wichtigste Zeit seines Lebens in Frankfurt, schuf hier einen Großteil seiner zentralen Werke und entwickelte den für ihn charakteristischen Stil. Das Städel Museum befasst sich seit fast einem Jahrhundert intensiv mit dem Sammeln und der Erforschung seines Œuvres. In dem Film zur Ausstellung „Städels Beckmann / Beckmanns Städel. Die Jahre in Frankfurt“ gehen die Kuratoren der Frage nach wie sich die Sammlung Beckmanns am Städel entwickelte und wie er in Frankfurt zu seinem charakteristischen Stil fand. Mehr Infos zur Ausstellung "Städels Beckmann / Beckmanns Städel. Die Jahre in Frankfurt": https://www.staedelmuseum.de/de/ausstellungen/staedels-beckmann-beckmanns-staedel

Work Data

Basic Information

Title
The Martyrdom
Sheet 3 of the series 'Hell'
Artist
Printer
Publisher
Set
Die Hölle
Part Number / Total
4 / 11
Edition
Probedruck vor der Auflage von 75 Ex.
Period Produced
Object Type
Physical Description
Chalk lithograph (transfer) on Japan paper
Material
Technique
Geographic Reference
Label at the Time of Manufacture
Bezeichnet unterhalb der Darstellung mittig (mit Bleistift): "Martyirium [sic]" (Probedruck); gewidmet unterhalb der Darstellung rechts: Beckmann / s. l. Friedel
Captions Added Later
Verso Stempel der Städtischen Galerie, Frankfurt am Main (Lugt 2371c), mit zugehöriger Inventarnummer
Watermark
  • Nicht vorhanden
Work Catalogues
  • Hofmaier 142 A
  • Gallwitz 116
  • Glaser 124
  • Beckmann-Liste 127

Property and Acquisition

Institution
Departement
Collection
Creditline
Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
Picture Copyright
Public Domain
Acquisition
Acquired in 1949 from the collection of Ugi and Fridel Battenberg

Work Content

Motifs and References

Iconclass

Primary
  • 54AA4 Vehemence, Violence, Fierceness; 'Sforza con Inganno', 'Violenza' (Ripa)
  • 31D15 adult woman
  • 61BB2(LUXEMBURG, Rosa)1 historical person (LUXEMBURG, Rosa) - BB - woman - historical person(LUXEMBURG, Rosa) portrayed
  • 31D14 adult man
  • 31A22 parts of the human body (skeleton excepted)
Secondary
  • 24D stars
  • 24B moon as celestial body
  • 24B3 waning moon, i.e. facing this way (
  • 45B the soldier; the soldier's life
  • 45C1 weapons
  • 45C16 firearms
  • 45C16(RIFLE) firearms: rifle
  • 45C21 (military) uniforms
Associative
  • 31E2356 violent death by crucifixion

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Last update

10.04.2024