The Ideologists, Max Beckmann
Max Beckmann
The Ideologists
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Max Beckmann

The Ideologists, 1919

Sheet 5 of the series 'Hell'


Blatt
848 x 620 mm
Darstellung
713 x 506 mm
Physical Description
Chalk lithograph (transfer) on simili Japan paper
Inventory Number
SG 3066
Object Number
SG 3066 D
Acquisition
Acquired in 1949 from the collection of Ugi and Fridel Battenberg
Status
Can be presented in the study room of the Graphische Sammlung (special opening hours)

Texts

About the Work

It was by way of drawing, etching and lithography that Beckmann developed his distinctive formal language during his early years in Frankfurt. Angular, reductive forms now came to define the pictorial structure. The artist broke up the space in virtually cubist manner, introducing perspectival warps and distorted dimensions that created a quality of dynamic instability. Within about fifteen years, Beckmann produced a rich printmaking oeuvre of exceptional intensity. A key work by the artist in that medium is the lithographic series ‘Hell’.

‘Hell’ mirrors Beckmann’s experience of the world after World War I in ten compositions and one title page. Caught firmly in the grip of inflation and economic hardship, Germany was a tinderbox until the proclamation of the Weimar Republic in November 1919. Civil-war-like conditions prevailed in many places, including Frankfurt – but also Berlin, a city Beckmann visited in March 1919. It was this state of affairs that provided the impulse for ‘Hell’.

In these images Beckmann portrays a deeply traumatized society – unsparingly, but without moral indictment. He depicts the human being as brutalized and mutilated, obsessed with merrymaking and murder, disillusioned, hungry and devoid of hope. “For the world is Hell”, the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer – whose works Beckmann devoured – had concluded in 1851, “and men are on the one hand the tormented souls and on the other the devils in it.” (Arthur Schopenhauer, On the Suffering of the World, London 2004, p. 15.) The Hell Beckmann portrays is like Schopenhauer’s in that there is no escaping it. His cycle depicts human drama as “scene[s] in the theatre of the eternal” (Max Beckmann, diary entry of 12 September 1940, ibid., Tagebücher, 1940–1950, Munich 1979, p. 310).

Especially during his Frankfurt years, the motifs of the stage, funfair and circus served Beckmann as metaphors for the world. ‘Hell’, for example, begins with a self-portrait of the artist as a fairground crier touting a “grand spectacle”. Only then do the individual images follow: claustrophobically interleaving spaces and oppressively close-up scenes viewed from abruptly shifting perspectives. Elements of reality are inextricably intertwined with the visionary and symbolic.

Beckmann executed the ‘Hell’ compositions in chalk on paper in a format clearly characterizing them as major artworks. They were then transferred to lithographic stones by way of a special process and printed by the C. Naumann company in Frankfurt. The gallerist Jsrael Ber Neumann, with whom Beckmann had been acquainted since 1912, acted as publisher. He had just opened his “Graphisches Kabinett” in Berlin the previous year, at the age of twenty-two. This establishment soon advanced to become one of the most influential galleries for German Expressionism. When Beckmann showed him the chalk drawings for ‘Hell’ in June 1919, Neumann spontaneously purchased the series. “Never”, the gallerist later recalled, “had I seen art of such venom, such bitterness.” (Jsrael Ber Neumann, “Sorrow and Champagne”, quoted from the original typescript in the Museum of Modern Art, New York, J. B. Neumann Papers, II.B.1.b, p. 8.

The Ideologists: In the months following the war’s end, countless citizens felt called upon to make public speeches, particularly at various types of social gatherings. Beckmann was as sceptical of extreme political action as he was of religious fanaticism. He crowded the “ideologists” into a fragmented, confused spatial framework. Though they defy association with any particular viewpoint, they are united in their loss of connection to reality.

Video

  • Städels Beckmann / Beckmanns Städel. Die Jahre in Frankfurt
    Max Beckmann (1884–1950) ist wie kaum ein anderer Künstler mit dem Städel Museum und Frankfurt verbunden. Er verbrachte die längste und wichtigste Zeit seines Lebens in Frankfurt, schuf hier einen Großteil seiner zentralen Werke und entwickelte den für ihn charakteristischen Stil. Das Städel Museum befasst sich seit fast einem Jahrhundert intensiv mit dem Sammeln und der Erforschung seines Œuvres. In dem Film zur Ausstellung „Städels Beckmann / Beckmanns Städel. Die Jahre in Frankfurt“ gehen die Kuratoren der Frage nach wie sich die Sammlung Beckmanns am Städel entwickelte und wie er in Frankfurt zu seinem charakteristischen Stil fand. Mehr Infos zur Ausstellung "Städels Beckmann / Beckmanns Städel. Die Jahre in Frankfurt": https://www.staedelmuseum.de/de/ausstellungen/staedels-beckmann-beckmanns-staedel

Work Data

Basic Information

Title
The Ideologists
Sheet 5 of the series 'Hell'
Artist
Printer
Publisher
Set
Die Hölle
Part Number / Total
6 / 11
Edition
Probedruck vor der Auflage von 75 Ex.
Period Produced
Object Type
Physical Description
Chalk lithograph (transfer) on simili Japan paper
Material
Technique
Geographic Reference
Label at the Time of Manufacture
Bezeichnet unterhalb der Darstellung links (mit Bleistift): "Die Ideologen" (Probedruck); gewidmet unterhalb der Darstellung rechts: Der Friedel von Beckmann
Captions Added Later
Verso Stempel der Städtischen Galerie, Frankfurt am Main (Lugt 2371c), mit zugehöriger Inventarnummer
Watermark
  • Nicht vorhanden
Work Catalogues
  • Hofmaier 144 A
  • Gallwitz 118
  • Glaser 126
  • Beckmann-Liste 129

Property and Acquisition

Institution
Departement
Collection
Creditline
Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main
Picture Copyright
Public Domain
Acquisition
Acquired in 1949 from the collection of Ugi and Fridel Battenberg

Work Content

Iconclass

Primary
  • 44C312 political caricatures and satires
  • 61B2(BECKMANN, Max)13(+53) historical person (BECKMANN, Max) - historical person (BECKMANN, Max) portrayed in a group, in a group-portrait (+ half-length portrait)
  • 31D15 adult woman
  • 31D14 adult man
Secondary
  • 33A34 person addressing a group, orator
  • 48C91 writer, poet, author
  • 46A633 debate, discussion (~ meeting)
Associative
  • 44C35 political theory, political ideology

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Last update

10.04.2024