Like few other artists of his time, Joos van Cleve and his workshop provided the Antwerp art market with high-quality serially produced works. He specialized in paintings of the Virgin and Child, which were executed and assembled by himself, but also independently by workshop assistants drawing on various models approved by him. The infrared image of the painting shows the preparatory underdrawing beneath the layer of paint. The panel (initially inverted) was first used for a different composition of the Virgin and Child. Lines of dots visible on Mary’s right hand and the Infant’s robe suggest that a perforated cartoon and a sprinkling of pounce were used to transfer the original design accurately. Van Cleve’s workshop perfected systematic copying in the interest of a high volume of sales.