1930-1933 three winter semesters at Düsseldorf's Academy under Werner Heuser, Heinrich Nauen, and Ewald Mataré. 1937-1939 trips to France, England, and the Netherlands. 1946 first one-man exhibition in the 'Studio', Städtisches Museum Wuppertal. 1949 moves to Cologne. 1953-1955 director of the graphics class at the Städel School, Frankfurt am Main. 1955 'documenta 1', Kassel, and subsequent ones. 1960 professorship at Karlsruhe's Kunstakademie. 1964 teaching at Munich's Akademie der Bildenden Künste. 1967-1972 president of the artists' league, the Deutscher Künstlerbund.