1911-1914 training in ornamental blacksmithing. 1923 study at the Städel School, Frankfurt am Main. 1925 study in applied arts under Prof. J. Cissarz at Frankfurt's Kunstgewerbeschule. 1928-1932 Städel School, Max Beckmann's master class. From 1946 member of the 'New Darmstadt Secession'. 1953 co-founder of the 'Frankfurt Secession'. 1976 co-founder of the 'Frankfurter Kreis' (Frankfurt Circle) with Thomas Zach and others.